Facts and Infos


How to differentiate between a Kamfa & ZZ


Note: Flower Lo-Han = Kamfa & Pearl Lo-Han = ZZ  (written by sonny)

The forehead/kok of the Kamfa rises higher than the ZZ.

Posted Image

On the side of the forehead/kok, the ZZ has more conspicuous/easily seen black mark/flowers than the Kamfa.

Posted Image

The lips of the Kamfa is smooth and circular whereas the lower lips of the ZZ is sticking/protruding out and the upper lips is shorter.

Posted Image

The eyes of the ZZ are usually outstanding/bulge out. The eyes of the Kamfa are hollow/sunken.

Posted Image

The dorsal fin and anal fin of the Kamfa would wrap around the caudal fin and they would look like one whole fin. The dorsal fin and anal fin of a ZZ would usually go upward and downward. The caudal fin of the ZZ is usually smaller also.

Posted Image

The bigger & older ZZ, it would have a droopy caudal tail. This condition would not occur to the Kamfa strain.

Posted Image

 Determine of Tank size & water volume:  (written by sonny)

a) Tank size: 24"L x 12"W x 18"H = 5,184 divide (231) = 22.5 gallons x 80% (water in the tank) = 18 gallons.

b) Tank size: 36"L x 18"W x 18"H = 11,664 divide (231) = 50 gallons x 80% (water in the tank) = 40 gallons.


2. Ideal size (Total Length) FH in a tank:

= 3.5 gallons of water : per inch (Total length) of FH.

E.g. A 18 gallons tanks could host a FH (Total length) to:
18 divide by 3.5 = 5" Max.

A 40 gallons divide 3.5 = 11.5" FH (Total length). Therefore, a 40 g tank is sufficient to host an adult FH.


A Dozen Do's and Don'ts

1. Don't leave Uneaten Food in your fish's home. Get your net and remove uneaten food after 5-10 minutes.

    2. Don't Crowd Your Fish's Home. Your fish's home has a maximum amount of fish that it can sustain. There is a maximum bio-load that any system can handle. Bio-load is a fancy term for fish waste.

One inch of fish per gallon of water, is a good rule of thumb for beginners. If you are new to keeping fish, be conservative. When you feel like buying a new fish, first check your fish and your water quality. 

    3. Don't do too Much. Don't tear your fish's home completely apart. No big yearly cleaning of your fish's home is needed. Change some water twice a week. Once a month clean your fish's home. Don't change more than 20% of the water on one day unless you have catastrophe.

   4. Don't Depend on Scavengers to keep your aquarium clean. Scavenger Fish and Ghost Shrimp will eat bits of food that sink to the bottom of your aquarium, and this will help improve the water quality. But scavengers will not clean a dirty aquarium. 

   5. Don't get an Aquarium and Fish at the Same Time. Get the new aquarium and equipment, take it home, read the instructions, set it all up, and let it run for three days or longer. Then get a few good starter fish. 

      6. Don't Have More than 1/4 Inch of Gravel. A Fish Bowl needs a layer of cultured gravel 1/4 of an inch thick, but an aquarium with an exterior power filter with a BIO-Wheel doesn't need any gravel. If you put gravel in your aquarium, keep it less than 1/4 of an inch thick, and stir it for a few seconds every day with your net to be sure the particles get swept up into your filter.

      7. Don't get Impatient and Do too Much to Fast. Don't add too many new fish at one time. Get a few new fish. Watch them, see how they adjust to their new home, and enjoy them! Don't change too much water at one time. If your aquarium is dirty, do a small cleaning each day. Change 20% of the water each day, until your aquarium is clean and the water is clear.

   8. Don't Contaminate Your Fish's Home. Be sure that everything that goes into your fish's water is not contaminated with soap, bleach, pesticides, or other chemicals. If you add ornaments such as rocks, gravel, or plastic plants, be sure they will not contaminate your fish's water.

Some rocks and gravel contain toxic minerals. Some plastic plants are not intended for use in water and may contaminate your fish's water. You'll avoid problems, if you'll shop in pet departments and buy items specifically labeled as being safe to use with pet fish.

Did you know that word KOK means HORN?

Thus according to the "To Shue ChaapShing" the Kok in Kwai Kok Shaan referred to the two peaks of the hill that look like a pair of horns.

Source: The Hong Kong Naturalist.




Did you know that SALT can be measured in "specific gravity", which measures the density of water baed on the amount of mineral salts it contains? Freshwater has a specific gravity of 1, whilst seawater is normally around 1.022-1.024.


Did you know that there seven ions (Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) contribute most of the salinity to water?

As we knew that the lower Ph the higher acid, we have, the higher Ph the more alkaline we have. But, did you know that Ph has a logarithmic function? A change of 1Ph is 10 times more alkaline we have? (change from 7-8Ph 10x more, 9ph is 100x more than neutral w/c 7ph)

Did you know that the most effective but potential yet dangerous treatment for parasites is Potassium permanganate?

Did you know that Flowerhorn can tolerate a temperatures to the lowest of 20-C?




FISH TALK    written by Evil One

Normal Behaviours

- Somersaults, figure 8s, etc. are signs of stimuli from the bringer of food, mate in the tank, change from previous dull/static state to turning your tank lights on greeting your fish, fresh waterchange, new decor, added more swimming room, etc. (Lucky).

- Your fish will beg for food using all antics (wagging tail, hitting cover, splashing water, etc.). Ignore and do not reward with food any unwanted behaviors, or stand-by for more of it (Evil One).

- A perceived interest item (or something that worries fish) will be stared at and then fish will look at you and go back to item; just like a dog points stuff to you (Evil One).

- Fish goes near his bowl, does a head stand, flips backwards and swims away in reverse indicates desire to have a female to mate (Wildimage/Sonny).

- Gravel digging and moving rocks indicates they are decorating their living space or making room for breeding nest (NiceFishHomie).

- Aggressive gravel or item biting and spitting could indicate FH is angry about something and/or throwing a tantrum (Wildimage).

- Fish with dropped (exposed) vent tube and is constantly rubbing the ground or surrounds is a sign of breeding (Paintsn).

Warning Behaviours

- Fish will dart around especially if there is a problem with water quality; such as a pH drop. Also, they will get spooked from light change & movement; especially when placed in lower level tanks (Lucky).

- Fish that likes to hide by the filter or behind things are indication that they are not compatible in that tank due to a bigger and more aggressive fish around (NiceFishHomie).

- Fish that stays close to heater could signal problem with heater temperature control or heated water is not circulating properly in tank (Wildimage & Evil One).

- Hard breathing means that there is not enough oxygen in the water because the temperature is too high or the tank is overcrowded with other fish sharing the same oxygen (NiceFishHomie).

Problem Behaviours

- Darting around chronically can be a sign of a disease starting (Lucky).

- FH that 'spaz' and swim in tight circles like helicopter's blades are showing the onset of being stunted (Lucky).

- Fish that stop eating (without tank move or mating) is a sign of disease (NiceFishHomie).

Physiological Observations and/or Signs

- Non-permanent vertical dark bars or patterns on body is an indication of stress; or they are in heat for mating (NiceFishHomie).

- Loss of normal coloration (or darker colors on body and or fins) may indicate: onset of fading (color change); stress; deficient water quality; spawning mode; lighting or decor change; diet change and/or improper diet (Paintsn).

- Head (kok) shrinking can indicate water condition changes, stress, and/or breeding (Paintsn).

- Usually; Red Eyes = Fertile, Yellow Eyes = Maybe Fertile, and White Eyes = Infertile (Wildimage).

- Normally; FH eyes change from red to yellow while sleeping (Bastardfish).

- Parrot Fish does a "reverse fade" and fins turns black (AKA Black Fin Disease) to indicate bad water quality (NiceFishHomie).

- Fish with white or clear stringy poop (excrement) trailing from anus can have a bacterial intestinal problem and/or parasites (i.e. Hole in the Head "HITH" or Hexamita disease)(NiceFishHomie).

- Fish with their anus sticking out is a sign of intestinal problem (like obstruction) and/or a case of hernia disease (NiceFishHomie).

- Fish with a pimple coming directly out of skin is most likely a bacterial infection; if discharge is coming out of cloaca (anal pore) it is probably a protoazoa parasite infection (Koliveira).

The Water

- Take care of the water and it will take care of your fish (Evil One).

- FH are not demanding with regards to pH values, but extremes below 6.4 and above 7.4 should be avoided. A neutral pH (7.0) will allow for fluctuations either way (Evil One).

- Any pH changes of more than 0.2 units per day will stress and/or harm your fish (pH scale is logarithmic and every unit = a 10X change). Drastic pH changes can kill your fish (Evil One).

- Water changes replace and help maintain the natural water buffering capacity to stabilize pH (Evil One).

- In localities with very soft water (low dissolved Calcium & Magnesium salts) adding 2 tablespoons of Aragonite (crushed coral) per 5 gal. of water (to substrate or filter media) will help buffer water to neutral pH (Evil One). 


- Pellets are the best staple you can feed to your fish. A good diet is to use two kinds of pellets on a regular basis; one being a normal high protein based and the other a good color enhancing formula (Bastardfish).

- The natural way of bringing out the color of your fish is giving it a wide variety of food (shrimps, krill, blood worms, beefheart, crickets, and vege's like peeled peas and corn (Vanz).

- By alternating a small amount of pellet, then feeding a high protein food (i.e. shrimp or bloodworms) followed with another small dose of pellets you can increase the benefit of high protein treat (AJB).

- Feeding fish, black worms, and other live aquatic feeders is the fastest way to introduce disease and parasites in your tanks (Evil One).

- Don't feed last 2 hours before lights-out. Digestion process and food absortion is compromised from the lack of activity. Also, fish can't rest well if stomach is digesting (Vanz & Evil One).

- Don't feed right after a water change. If skip-feeding a day each week, skip day after water change (Vanz & Evil One).

- Overfeeding will augment decomposing organic matter in water. End result will be increased production of: Ammonia; Nitrites; Nitrates; and CO2 (Evil One).

- Overfeeding can make a fish fat and eventually shorten it's lifespan (NiceFishHomie).

- Fish that loose interest and/or stop eating for a few days after a tank move, or during mating causes worry; but is normal (Evil One).

- Food treats should be used sparingly. If FH gorges out with a treat he likes; could respond with less enthusiasm to his staple pellets on following feedings (Wildimage).